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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10277/804

Autori: Corti, Tommaso
Tutor non afferente all'Università: Gatti, Alessandra
Titolo: Temporal properties of counter propagating twin photons
Abstract: Twin photon pairs generated through parametric downconversion (PDC) in a χ 2 medium is one of the most widely used source of entanglement. We focus here on a non-conventional geometry in which one of the twin photons propagates in the opposite direction with respect to the pump beam, exploiting quasi-phase-matching in a periodically poled crystal. Through predicted almost 50 years ago, this new PDC configuration has been realized experimentally only recently [1] thanks to new fabrication techniques achieving the required sub-micrometer poling period. Because of the presence of distributed feedback, the optical system has been shown to behave as a Mirrorless Optical Parametric Oscillator (MOPO) and exhibits peculiar spectral properties which strongly differ from those found in more common geometries involving co-propagating beams. In this work we provide a detailed analysis of the correlation and coherence properties of counter-propagating twin beams both in the purely spontaneous regime and in the neighborhood of the MOPO threshold. We consider on the on side the regime of spontaneous pair production where the characteristic narrow band of the counter-propagating twin beams offers the unique opportunity of generating heralded single photon states with a high degree of purity, a relevant property for applications in quantum communication. In this context, we investigate how the degree of separability of the twin photon state varies with the pump pulse duration τp. We find that two well separated time scales characterize the system dynamics: a short time scale τgvm, in the picoseconds range, corresponding to the typical temporal delay of co-propagating waves due to group-velocity mismatch, and a much longer time scale τgvs associated with the temporal separation of counter-propagating waves. Such a difference of time scales occurs naturally in the counterpropagating configuration, for basically any kind of material and tuning condition. Because of this same feature, counter-propagating twin photons in a pure state can in principle be heralded at any wavelength by choosing the appropriate poling period. We show that a high degree of separability can be achieved when the pump pulse duration satisfy the condition τgvm ≪ τp ≪ τgvs, as put in evidence from the evaluation of Schmidt number as a function of the pump pulse duration which reaches a minimum close to unity in this region. The separability is lost in the nearly monochromatic limit ( τp ≫ τgvs ) as well as for ultra-short pulses ( τp ≪ τgvm ), where the entanglement between the signal and idler frequencies can be inferred by the non factorable shape of the spectral biphoton amplitude. We offer a physical interpretation of such a behaviour, and a detailed analysis of the Schmidt number characterizing the entanglement of the state. We also considered a completely different regime of operation, close to the MOPO threshold, where the combined effect of stimulated PDC and distributed feedback affects dramatically the property of coherence of the field. Our analysis put in evidence a progressive narrowing of both the spectral twin beam correlation and the intensity spectra as the pump field intensity approaches its threshold value. This translates into a drastic increase of the correlation and coherence times in the temporal domain, a feature which can be attributed to the critical slowing down of the fluctuation dynamics characterizing the transition toward coherent emission occurring at the MOPO threshold. Furthermore, we investigate the potentiality of the source to generate squeezing and EPR type correlations in the threshold vicinity. In this regards, the obtained results shows that the system displays a behaviour which is very similar to that found in standard optical parametric oscillators enclosed in a resonant cavity. In the last part of the work, we present some preliminary results from numerical simulations illustrating the transition above the MOPO thresholds. We also take into account non collinear PDC emission, showing explicitely that the spatial and the temporal degrees of freedoms of the emitted twin photons are almost uncoupled. This feature strongly distinguish the counter-propagating configuration from standard co-propagating geometries where the phase-matching mechanism usually leads to strong angular dispersion.
Parole chiave: Periodically poled crystals, mirrorless optical parametric oscillator (MOPO), entanglement
Data: 2017
Lingua: eng
Corso di dottorato: Fisica
Ciclo di dottorato: 28
Università di conseguimento titolo: Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Citazione: Corti, T.Temporal properties of counter propagating twin photons (Doctoral Thesis, Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, 2017).

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